Aegle marmelos Correa / wood-apple ,bel

Aegle marmelos Correa

Family: Rutaceae

English names: Bengal quince, golden apple, stone apple

Nepali names: bael

French name:      ornager du Malabar

Indian names: maredu

Aegle marmelos Correa is a sacred tree, dedicated to Lord Shiva. The offering of bael leaves is a compulsory ritual of the worship of Lord Shiva in the hills. This importance seems largely due to its medicinal properties. All parts of this tree, viz., root, leaf, trunk, fruit and seed, are used for curing one human ailment or another.

Bael is a handsome tree, native to Nepal, but is found widely throughout Nepal , Burma, Thailand and Indo-China (Bailey, 1963). The bael fruit tree grows wild up to an altitude of 1,200 m (4,000 ft) in dry forests on Churia range of Nepal.

Morphology

A small to medium-sized aromatic tree, deciduous; stem and branches, light brown to green; strong axillary spines present on the branches; the average height of tree, 8.5 metres.

Leaves, alternate, pale green, trifoliate; terminal leaflet, 5.7 cm long, 2.8 cm broad, having a long petiole; the two lateral leaflets, almost sessile, 4.1 cm long, 2.2 cm wide, ovate to lanceolate having reticulate pinnate venation; petiole, 3.2 cm long.

Flowers, greenish white, sweetly scented, bisexual, actinomorpbic, ebracteate. hypogynous, stalked; stalk, 8 mm long; diameter of a fully open flower, 1.8 cal; flowers, borne in lateral panicles of about 10 flowers, arising from the leaf axil; calyx, gamosepalous, five-lobed, pubescent, light green, very small in comparison with petals; corolla polypetalous, with 5 petals, imbricate, leathery, pale yellow from above and green from beneath, length 4 mm; androecium, polyandrous, numerous, basifixed, 4 mm long, dehiscing longitudinally; gynoecium, light green, 7 mm long, having capitate stigma and terminal style.

Fruits, yellowish green, with small dots on the outer surface, oblong to globose, 5.3 cm to 7 2 cm in diameter; weight, 77.2 g; volume, 73.7 ml; pulp, yellow and mucilaginous, the pulp of dried fruits retains its yellow, and also remains intact; rind woody, 4 to 5 mm thick.

Seeds, numerous, embedded in the pulp, oblong, compressed, white, having cotton-like hairs on their outer surface.

The flowering and fruiting season The Churia range runs east west on the north of terai region. It is less distinct beyond the Koshi river. It is the youngest range of around 1000 m in elevation formed from sediments produced by the rising Himalaya during the last 40 million years or so. The Churia range vary in width, being narrowest in the east, where they are sometimes reduced to a narrow fringe, and broadest in the west.The bael fruit tree grows wild up to an altitude of 1,200 m (4,000 ft) in dry forests on Churia range of Nepal.

The flowering was observed to have of June to the first fortnight of July. The fruits take almost one year to mature. The peak fruiting season is during May and June.

Yield

Observations on the trees at Koti revealed that the average yield of a wild bael tree was 62.5 kg. which is quite good.

Chemical composition of the fruit

The fruit pulp contains 60.7 per cent moisture. The pulp contains 0.46 per cent acidity, 8.36 per cent total sugars, 6.21 per cent reducing sugars, 2.04 per cent non-reducing sugars and 0.21 per cent tannins. The pectin content is 2.52 per cent, which is quite high. The fruit pulp, however, is not a good source of vitamin C which is only 920 mg per 100 g of pulp

This fruit is a very good source of protein which is 5.12 per cent of the edible portion. The total mineral content of the edible portion, as represented by ash, is 2.663 per cent. The percentage content of some of the minerals, viz. phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron is 0.137, 0.746, 0.188, 0.127 and 0.007 respectively.

Medicinal properties

Watt (1889) reported the unripe dried fruit to be astringent, digestive and stomachic. According to him, they are prescribed to cure diarrhoea and dysentery. The ripe fruit is a good and simple cure for dyspepsia. The roots, and the bark of the tree are used in the treatment of fever by making a decoction of them. The leaves are made into a poultice and used in the treatments of ophthalmia. the rind of the ripe fruit is also sometimes used as a medicine.

The roots are sweet, cure the fevers caused by tridosho, stop pain in the abdomen, the palpitation of the heart, and allay urinary troubles. They are also useful in the disordes of vata, pitta and kapha.

The fruits are very useful in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, particularly in the case of patients having diarrhoea, alternating with the spells of constipation. Sweet drink (sherbet) prepared from the pulp of fruits produce a soothing effect on the patients who have just recovered from bacillary dysentery. The unripe and half-ripe fruits improve appetite and digestion.

The pulp from the unripe fruits is soaked in gingelly oil for a week and this oil is smeared over the body before bathing. This oil is said to be useful in removing the peculiar burning sensation in the soles.

Dessert quality

The pulp of the fruit is sweet and is highly aromatic. The overall eating quality is fair.

Utilization

The fruits are usually eaten by people. They are also used in the preparation of many medicines in the villages. These protein-rich fruits are also used in making a very good drink. They also can make a good jam. The utilization of the fruits to make jam should be tried at commercial scale.

The fruits are also used in making paints in Burma. They are also used as a substitute for soap, as source of essential oils and perfumes. The mucilage of the seed is a good cementing material (Watt 1889).

The wood of the bael-tree takes a fine polish and is used in building houses, constructing carts, agricultural implements, in oil-mills and sugar-mills, in making pestles, handles of tools, in making combs, etc., and for carving but the tree is too valuable to be felled for its timber. A yellow dye is obtained from the rind of the unripe fruits and is used in calico-printing. An essential oil is distilled from the rind.

The dried fruits, after their pulp separated from the rind, are used as pill-boxes for keeping valuable medicines, sacred ashes and snuff.

The leaves contain 0.6 per cent essential oil, mostly composed of d-limonene.

Considering all these properties of this wild fruit-tree, there should be a large scope for exploiting it for commercial cultivation in the hills.

Abstract

Aegle marmelos, commonly known as Bael and belonging to the family Rutaceae is an important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian system of medicine, the Ayurveda. The extract prepared by boiling the bark, leaves or roots in water is useful as laxative, febrifuge, and expectorant. The extract is also useful in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes, and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are used in treating diarrhea, dysentery, stomach ache, and cardiac ailments. Scientific studies have validated many of Bael's ethnomedicinal properties and its potential antimicrobial effects, hypoglycemic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, demulcent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound-healing, insecticidal, and gastroprotective properties. In addition, studies have also shown that Bael and some of the Bael phytochemicals possess antineoplastic, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and chemopreventive effects, properties efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. For the first time, the current review summarizes the results related to these properties and emphasizes aspects that require further investigation for Bael's safe and effective use in the near future.

Properties

The bael fruit tree is well known for its ayurvedic as well as socio-cultural importance. The history of this tree has been traced to Vedic period (2000 BC - 800 BC).

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*

Water                 :        54.96-61.5 g

Protein               :        1.8-2.62 g

Fat                      :        0.2-0.39 g

Carbohydrates   :        28.11-31.8 g

Ash                     :        1.04-1.7 g

Carotene            :        55 mg

Thiamine            :        0.13 mg

Riboflavin           :        1.19 mg

Niacin                 :        1.1 mg

Ascorbic Acid     :        8-60 mg

Tartaric Acid      :        2.11 mg

AYURVEDIC USE

Medicinal properties of bael fruit tree have been described in the ancient madicaltreatise in Sanskrit, Charaka Samhita. All parts of this tree- stem, bark, root, leaves and fruit at all stages of maturity-have medicinal virtues and have been as medicine for a long time.The ripened bael fruit is aromatic, cooling and laxative. An analysis of the bael fruit pulp shows it is rich in mineral and vitamin contents. The fruit pulp has all the important nutrients and health growing ingredients. Bael fruit pulp is good for heart and brain. It is said that the psoralen in the pulp increases tolerance of sunlight and aids in the maintaining of normal skin color. It is employed in the treatment of leucoderma (vitiligo). Ripe bael fruit is regarded as best of all laxatives. It cleans and tones up the intestines. Its regular use for two to three months throws out even the old accumulated faecal matter from the bowels. Ayurvedic importance of bael fruit can be summarised as follows:

•          Memory enhancing

•          Skin vitalising, sunburn preventing

•          Digestion promoting

•          Soothing, refreshing

•          Cardio tonic

•          Diabetic control.

An analysis of the bael fruit shows it is rich in mineral and vitamin contents. The sherbet made out of this fruit has all the important nutrients and health growing ingredients. It should be thick and syrupy enough to be taken with spoon and it should be thoroughly masticated. If taken hurriedly,  it may produce heaviness in the stomach. The bael fruit should also not be taken in excess at a time as excessive intake of bael may produce a sensation of heaviness in the stomach and may cause gastric discomfort.

In the Hindu tradition, one hundred and eight bael leaves (called Bel Patras) are offered to Lord Shiva on every Monday falling in the month of Shrawan (Augest) by the married women which is said to bring good health and prosperity to their husband.