Lindera are evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs.The leaves are alternate, entire or three-lobed, and strongly spicy-aromatic.Lindera are dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate trees. The inflorescences are composed of 3 to 15 small flowers existing as pseudo-umbels. They are sessile or on short shoots. The flowers are from greenish to white, greenish-yellow, or yellowish, with six tepals arranged in a star shape.The male flowers have 9 to 15 fertile stamens; the innermost circle of stamens can be found at the base of the stamen glands. Usually the stamens are longer than the anthers, which in turn consist of two chambers and are directed inwards or sideways. The vestigial ovary is negligible or absent. The base of the flower is small and flat. The female flowers have a varying number of staminodes. Pollination is done by bees and other insects. Lindera fruit have a hypocarpium at the base of the fruit, which in some cases forms a cup that encloses the bottom part of the fruit. The fruit is a small red, purple or black drupe containing a single seed, dispersed mostly by birds. Many species reproduce vegetatively by stolons.
Hydrodistillation of fresh leaves and branches of Lindera neesiana Benth. yielded essential oils in 1.3% and 0.5% (w/w) yield respectively. The leaf was found to contain methyl chavicol (83.76%) and safrole (11.86%) as major components, while myristicin (69.99%) and 1,8-cineole (17.97%) were the major components of the branch oil on GC/MS analysis.
Botanical Name: Zanthoxylum Oxyphyllum
Common Name: Siltimur, Boketimur, Lahare Timur
Parts Used: Flowers, fruits, seeds
Packaging: The packaging is in gunny bags in uniform weights.
Uses: Fruits are bitter, appetiser, anthelmintic, also used to reduce pain and tumors. Seeds and bark as an aromatic tonic are used in fever, dispepsia and cholera. Flowers are antidote to snake bite.