Terminalia Belerica

LOCAL  NAME: BARRO

GENERAL  INFORMATION :

 

 

Belerica is a large deciduous tree found in Nepal at an altitude of 1,000 meters. The tree takes a height of 30 meters, while the bark is brownish grey in color. The alternate, broadly elliptic leaves are clustered towards the end of the branches. They are 10 to 12 cm in length and 7 to 14 cm in breadth. The simple, solitary flowers are in auxiliary spikes, with offensive odor. They blossom in the month of May. The fruits are ovoid grey drupes and the kernels are sweet, but narcotic.

   

 The fruits are green and inflated when young and yellowish and shrink (nearly seen as ribbed) when mature. The nut is stony.

PRINCIPLE  CONTITUENTS : ß- sitosterol, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose, chebulagic acid.

MEDICINAL  BENEFITS :

- Beleric is a rejuvenative and laxative. It proves beneficial for hair, throat and eyes.
- Beleric seed oil or fruit paste is applied on swollen and painful parts.
- The seed oil gives excellent results in skin diseases and premature greying of hair.
-  Fruit pieces are baked and chewed for cough, cold, hoarseness of voice and asthma.
-  Beleric fruit is powdered and used to dress wounds to arrest the bleeding.
- Its fruits and kernels are used in making medicated hair oil, used to alleviate pain and burning sensation, boost -hair growth and impart black color to the hair.
-  The paste of the fruit is applied on eyelids, in case of conjunctivitis.
- The herb is used in various eye ailments, such as myopia, corneal opacity, pterigium,  immature cataract, chronic        and acute infective conditions.
-  Beleric helps in loss of appetite, flatulence, thirst, piles and worms.
-  The ripened fruit acts as an astringent and anti-diarrheal.
-  The decoction of the kernels is used in case of excessive thirst and vomiting.
-  Beleric plant alleviates cough, relieves blocked phlegm, controls bleeding in the sputum and eases bronchospasms.
- It prevents ageing, imparts longevity, boosts immunity, improves mental faculties and enhances the body resistance against diseases.
-  It helps in lowering cholesterol and blood pressure.
-  Good for hair, throat and eyes.
-  Helpful in cough, cold, hoarseness of voice and asthma.

RESEARCH  MATERIALS  :

1. in vitro Antidiabetic Properties of the Fruits and Leaves of Terminalia bellirica

Manila, T.N., Mary Shoba Das, C., Gayathri Devi,

Terminalia bellirica is a traditionally used medicinal plant claimed to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic activity of the fruits and leaves of Terminalia bellirica. The in vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity of different extracts of Terminalia bellirica was also determined. From the results, it is clear that the acetone extract of both the fruits and leaves of             Terminalia bellirica shows strong inhibitory activity against alpha amylase and the aqueous extract of fruits and leaves of Terminalia bellirica were found to exhibit highest alpha glucosidase activity. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the Terminalia bellirica could be used for treating diabetes mellitus.

2. Extraction and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antiviral Efficacy of Terminalia bellirica Fruits

Girija Nagendraswamy1, Lakshmi Ranganatha V2, Bushra Begum A2, Prashanth T2, Mohammed Alghorbani2, Farhan Zameer3, Shaukath Ara Khanum2*.

Infectious diseases are the world's leading cause of premature deaths. Therefore,there is a continuous and an urgent need to discover new antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. In herbal medicine, crude plant extracts in the form of infusion, decoction, tincture or herbal extract are traditionally used by the population for the treatment of diseases, including infectious diseases. In thepresent study we have extracted bio active compounds from Terminalia bellirica fruits using different organic solvents, further we have subjected all the extracts toevaluate antimicrobial and antiviral efficacy by using different strains. Minimuminhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Among all the extracts ethylacetate and methanolic extract shows good antiviral and antimicrobial activity at very low concentrations. In in-silico studies, the active extracts major componentsshowed minimum binding and docking energy and thus may be considered as good inhibitor of GlcN-6-Psynthase for its antimicrobial a  ctivity.

 3.EVALUATION OF ANGIOGENESIS POTENTIAL OF TERMINALIA BELLIRICA ROXB. BY CHICK CHORIO-ALLANTOIC  MEMBRANE(CAM) ASSAY

V. Vinoth Prabhu 1*, V.Gopal 2

1Research Scholar, Faculty of Pharmacy, PRIST University, Thanjavur-614 904 & Department of Pharmacology,

K.M. College of Pharmacy, Madurai-625 107, Tamil Nadu, Indiaa2College of Pharmacy, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of ABSTRACT :Health Sciences, Puducherry-605 006, India

 Therapeutic angiogenesis is the method of stimulation of angiogenesis where it is required but lacking. It represents an excellent tool for the treatment of deregulated angiogenesis based cardiovascular diseases. Itis a potent physiological process that underlies the natural manner in which our bodies respond to a diminution of blood supply to vitalorgans, namely the production of new collateral vessels to overcome the  ischemic state. This present study is aimed to evaluate and quantify the Angiogenic potential of Terminalia Bellirica Roxb, belonging to the family of Combretaceae. Angiogenic activity of Ethanolic extract ofTerminalia bellirica leaf by CAM assay was determined, after 14 days of incubation, strongly elicited on angiogenic response, which is visible with the microscope as a spoke-wheel-like pattern of blood vessels. However, around the control gelatin sponge containing vehicle alone, less growth of new blood vessels was observed, Application of 300 :g of EETB exhibits 73.33% of positive response. The angiogenesis index in the chick CAM was increased in the dose dependent manner. The Phytochemical screening and qualitative instrumental analysis was done which reveals the presence of proteins and Phytosterols exhibits strong angiogenic actions and also may have the potential to be a useful activator of the large number of serious diseases characterized by deregulated angiogenesis. It was observed that EETB significantly promotes the development of capillary networks in CAM and these newly synthesized vessels participated actively in the circulating of blood cells in-ova. Further study is required to define more precisely the  molecular mechanisms by which EETB modulates endothelial cell

function and gene expression as well as the pathological relevance of these findings.

4. Modern Medical research of Terminalia Belerica.

 

In addition, to having laxative and astringent properties, recent scientific studies have shown Terminalia Belerica to be a powerful adaptogen. An adaptogen is a hypothetical treatment or prescription for health. A healthy lifestyle is the one indisputable example of an adaptogen. Eating right, exercising, and doing all things in moderation will help the body adapt to stresses such as heat, cold, exertion, trauma, sleep deprivation, toxic exposure, radiation, infection, or psychological stress. There are no side effects with an adaptogen. It must be able to treat a variety of illnesses and help an organism return to its balanced state no matter what the cause. Further scientific studies have shown that Terminalia Belerica lowers lipid levels in the liver and heart, and works well in preventing heart and liver fat congestion, which lowers the risk of disease associated with those organs. Preliminary studies have shown its effectiveness in inhibiting viral growth in leukemia patients, and other studies are showing promise in Terminalia Belerica's ability to hinder the spread of the HIV virus.

 AIDS: An extract of Terminalia bellerica showed significant inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase, with IC50 NMT 50 micrograms/ml (el-Mekkawy et al 1995). Four lignans (termilignan, thannilignan, hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy) flavan, anolignan B) possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-1 in vitro (Valsaraj et al 1997).

 Antimalarial: Four lignans (termilignan, thannilignan, hydroxy-3',4'-[methylenedioxy] flavan, and anolignan B) possessed demonstrable antimalarial activity in vitro (Valsaraj et al 1997).

 Antimutagenic: Two polyphenolic fractions isolated from T. bellerica were significantly effective against mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium. Interaction of the polyphenols with S9 proteins may be the probable cause of the inhibitory effect (Padam et al 1996).


 Antifungal: Four lignans (termilignan, thannilignan, hydroxy-3',4'-[methylenedioxy] flavan, and anolignan B) possessed demonstrable antifungal activity in vitro (Valsaraj et al 1997).

 Antioxidant: Terminalia chebula Rotz extracts could be applied reducing free radical in cigarette smoke,this products releases antioxidant and good for fighting with free radicals inside your body.

 Comments: This is a stimulating astringent, and has a wide application in any condition of atony, prolapse, and relaxation of the mucosa. For coughs, sore throats, laryngitis and dyspepsia the churna may be taken with honey. In the treatment of dry, irritative coughs Nadkarni recommends a linctus of equal parts , SaindhT.Bellirica ,ava (rock salt), Pippali (Piper longum), and Maricha (Piper nigrum) (1976, 1204).

 Frawley and Lad mention that T.Bellirica is useful in the treatment of cholelithiasis and urinary lithiasis, liquefying and expelling the stones (1986, 164). It is useful in the treatment uterine and colonic prolapse, and hemorrhage (Varier 1996, 258). The mature, dried fruit of  Bellirica is effective in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and parasites, but in the latter case should be taken along with purgatives such as Senna (Cassia angustifolia) as Vibhitaka can be constipate (Varier 1996, 258). A decoction of the fruit may be taken internally and can be used externally as an eyewash in the treatment of ophthalmological disorders (Nadkarni 1976, 1204). Vaidya Mana Bhajracharya indicates that the fresh fruit pulp is used as a collyrium in the treatment of nontraumatic corneal ulcer (avranashukla) (1997, 85). Varier mentions that the oil from the seeds is trichogenous, and can be used topically for leucoderma and skin diseases (1996, 258). Vibhitaka is most commonly found as an ingredient in Triphala, usually mixed in equal parts with Haritaki and Amalaki.